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Even some similarities can be noted with other online gay cults or memes in Japan such as Yaranaika? The most popular episode is the first one.

Three young athletes, Miura, Nakata and Kohai, cause a car accident by rear-ending a car carrying a Yakuza a Japanese mobster named Tanioka.

Nakata, driving the car, has his driver's license taken away, and the three young men are taken to Tanioka's office. To get back it from him, Miura is coerced into sadistic homosexual sex by Tanioka to atone.

They later go on the offensive, when Nakata steals a gun from Tanioka. Miura rapes Tanioka aggressively, and, after finishing, Nakata kills Tanioka by shooting him in the anus.

Soon after this video was released, some viewers claimed Miura in this video resembled a famous college baseball player at that time.

However, this rumor wasn't spread widely until a gossip paper also reported it in This topic finally made the headlines in the middle of Many Japanese gossip magazines and papers began reporting that a man who closely resembled a candidate of that year's professional baseball draft appeared in a gay porn video with younger players on the same team.

Though the reports kept his name a secret, they did so in vain, as it was commonly known that the player was Tadano. The manager of the baseball team at the university where he had gone made a statement saying that there were players on his team who had been in the video.

As a result of this, he was unable to hear any offers from other Japanese professional baseball teams, out of fear of scandal. The baseball player, Kazuhito Tadano [2] , went to the US and managed to continue his career by passing a tryout for Cleveland Indians.

In January , he left the comment about the incident to American media for the first time, saying "It was a one-time incident… I'm not gay.

This video itself went out of print. Several episodes were compiled to DVD in later years, minus the first episode. Their research brought the video to many Japanese internet user's attention and surfaced another video starring Tadano and his teammates.

This caused people to doubt his statement saying he was straight. At the same time, the videos' poor acting, cheesy one-liners and nonsensical storylines made it the target of jokes on 2Channel.

Since Nico Nico Douga was launched in , many of the videos and jokes have been uploaded to there, and some of them have been reused in MAD videos.

Inmu videos began to change since the inmufags discovered the fanmade of Marisa and Alice's cookie kiss , this change consisted in making more videos with the characters, backgrounds, text boxes and the main bgm of that touhou fandmade, and put the characters of the inmu family in those videos.

With different silly stories to satirize more the actors. Since the scandal surrounding the Tadano incident that never reported actor's real name, commenters usually refer to actors in this video series not by their real name, but by their acronyms.

Hippolyta's story arc is that she must submit to Theseus and become a matron. Titania has to give up her motherly obsession with the changeling boy and passes through a symbolic death, and Oberon has to once again woo and win his wife.

Kehler notes that Zimbardo took for granted the female subordination within the obligatory marriage, social views that were already challenged in the s.

In , James L. Calderwood offered a new view on the role of Oberon. He viewed the king as specialising in the arts of illusion.

Oberon, in his view, is the interior dramatist of the play, orchestrating events. He is responsible for the play's happy ending, when he influences Theseus to overrule Egeus and allow the lovers to marry.

Oberon and Theseus bring harmony out of discord. He also suggested that the lovers' identities, which are blurred and lost in the forest, recall the unstable identities of the actors who constantly change roles.

In fact the failure of the artisans' play is based on their chief flaw as actors: they can not lose their own identities to even temporarily replace them with those of their fictional roles.

Also in , Andrew D. Weiner argued that the play's actual theme is unity. The poet's imagination creates unity by giving form to diverse elements, and the writer is addressing the spectator's own imagination which also creates and perceives unity.

Weiner connected this unity to the concept of uniformity, and in turn viewed this as Shakespeare's allusion to the "eternal truths" [46] of Platonism and Christianity.

Also writing in , Hugh M. Richmond offered an entirely new view of the play's love story lines.

He argued that what passes for love in this play is actually a self-destructive expression of passion. He argued that the play's significant characters are all affected by passion and by a sadomasochistic type of sexuality.

This passion prevents the lovers from genuinely communicating with each other. At the same time it protects them from the disenchantment with the love interest that communication inevitably brings.

The exception to the rule is Bottom, who is chiefly devoted to himself. His own egotism protects him from feeling passion for anyone else. Richmond also noted that there are parallels between the tale of Pyramus and Thisbe , featured in this play, and that of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet.

In , Neil Taylor argued that there was a double time-scheme in the play, making it seem to last a minimum of four nights but to also be timeless.

In , Ralph Berry argued that Shakespeare was chiefly concerned with epistemology in this play. The lovers declare illusion to be reality, the actors declare reality to be illusion.

The play ultimately reconciles the seemingly opposing views and vindicates imagination. The mood is so lovely that the audience never feels fear or worry about the fate of the characters.

In , Marjorie Garber argued that metamorphosis is both the major subject of the play and the model of its structure. She noted that in this play, the entry in the woods is a dream-like change in perception, a change which affects both the characters and the audience.

Dreams here take priority over reason, and are truer than the reality they seek to interpret and transform. He was certain that there are grimmer elements in the play, but they are overlooked because the audience focuses on the story of the sympathetic young lovers.

He viewed the characters as separated into four groups which interact in various ways. Among the four, the fairies stand as the most sophisticated and unconstrained.

The contrasts between the interacting groups produce the play's comic perspective. In , Ronald F. Miller expresses his view that the play is a study in the epistemology of imagination.

He focused on the role of the fairies, who have a mysterious aura of evanescence and ambiguity. He in part refuted the ideas of Jan Kott concerning the sexuality of Oberon and the fairies.

He pointed that Oberon may be bisexual and his desire for the changeling boy may be sexual in nature, as Kott suggested.

But there is little textual evidence to support this, as the writer left ambiguous clues concerning the idea of love among the fairies.

He concluded that therefore their love life is "unknowable and incomprehensible". It is the tension between the dark and benevolent sides of love, which are reconciled in the end.

In , Anne Paolucci argued that the play lasts five days. In , M. Lamb suggested that the play may have borrowed an aspect of the ancient myth of Theseus: the Athenian's entry into the Labyrinth of the Minotaur.

The woods of the play serve as a metaphorical labyrinth, and for Elizabethans the woods were often an allegory of sexual sin.

The lovers in the woods conquer irrational passion and find their way back. Bottom with his animal head becomes a comical version of the Minotaur.

Bottom also becomes Ariadne's thread which guides the lovers. In having the new Minotaur rescue rather than threaten the lovers, the classical myth is comically inverted.

Theseus himself is the bridegroom of the play who has left the labyrinth and promiscuity behind, having conquered his passion.

The artisans may stand in for the master craftsman of the myth, and builder of the Labyrinth, Daedalus.

Even Theseus' best known speech in the play, which connects the poet with the lunatic and the lover may be another metaphor of the lover.

It is a challenge for the poet to confront the irrationality he shares with lovers and lunatics, accepting the risks of entering the labyrinth.

Also in , Harold F. Brooks agreed that the main theme of the play, its very heart, is desire and its culmination in marriage. All other subjects are of lesser importance, including that of imagination and that of appearance and reality.

She argued that the play is about traditional rites of passage , which trigger development within the individual and society.

Theseus has detached himself from imagination and rules Athens harshly. The lovers flee from the structure of his society to the communitas of the woods.

The woods serve here as the communitas , a temporary aggregate for persons whose asocial desires require accommodation to preserve the health of society.

This is the rite of passage where the asocial can be contained. Falk identified this communitas with the woods, with the unconscious, with the dream space.

She argued that the lovers experience release into self-knowledge and then return to the renewed Athens. This is " societas ", the resolution of the dialectic between the dualism of communitas and structure.

Also in , Christian critic R. Chris Hassel, Jr. The experience of the lovers and that of Bottom as expressed in his awakening speech teach them "a new humility, a healthy sense of folly".

They just learned a lesson of faith. Hassel also thought that Theseus' speech on the lunatic, the lover, and the poet is an applause to imagination.

But it is also a laughing rejection of futile attempts to perceive, categorise, or express it. Some of the interpretations of the play have been based on psychology and its diverse theories.

In , Alex Aronson argued that Theseus represents the conscious mind and Puck represents the unconscious mind.

Puck, in this view, is a guise of the unconscious as a trickster , while remaining subservient to Oberon. Aronson thought that the play explores unauthorised desire and linked it to the concept of fertility.

He viewed the donkey and the trees as fertility symbols. The lovers' sexual desires are symbolised in their forest encounters.

First, they have to pass through stages of madness multiple disguises , and discover their "authentic sexual selves".

Holland applied psychoanalytic literary criticism to the play. He interpreted the dream of Hermia as if it was a real dream. In his view, the dream uncovers the phases of Hermia's sexual development.

Her search for options is her defence mechanism. She both desires Lysander and wants to retain her virginity.

In his view, Shakespeare suggests that love requires the risk of death. Love achieves force and direction from the interweaving of the life impulse with the deathward-release of sexual tension.

He also viewed the play as suggesting that the healing force of love is connected to the acceptance of death, and vice versa. In , Jan Lawson Hinely argued that this play has a therapeutic value.

Shakespeare in many ways explores the sexual fears of the characters, releases them, and transforms them. And the happy ending is the reestablishment of social harmony.

Patriarchy itself is also challenged and transformed, as the men offer their women a loving equality, one founded on respect and trust.

She even viewed Titania's loving acceptance of the donkey-headed Bottom as a metaphor for basic trust. This trust is what enables the warring and uncertain lovers to achieve their sexual maturity.

In , Barbara Freedman argued that the play justifies the ideological formation of absolute monarchy , and makes visible for examination the maintenance process of hegemonic order.

During the years of the Puritan Interregnum when the theatres were closed — , the comic subplot of Bottom and his compatriots was performed as a droll.

Drolls were comical playlets, often adapted from the subplots of Shakespearean and other plays, that could be attached to the acts of acrobats and jugglers and other allowed performances, thus circumventing the ban against drama.

When the theatres re-opened in , A Midsummer Night's Dream was acted in adapted form, like many other Shakespearean plays.

Samuel Pepys saw it on 29 September and thought it " the most insipid, ridiculous play that ever I saw John Frederick Lampe elaborated upon Leveridge's version in In , David Garrick did the opposite of what had been done a century earlier: he extracted Bottom and his companions and acted the rest, in an adaptation called The Fairies.

Frederic Reynolds produced an operatic version in In , Madame Vestris at Covent Garden returned the play to the stage with a relatively full text, adding musical sequences and balletic dances.

Vestris took the role of Oberon, and for the next seventy years, Oberon and Puck would always be played by women. After the success of Madame Vestris' production, 19th-century theatre continued to stage the Dream as a spectacle, often with a cast numbering nearly one hundred.

Detailed sets were created for the palace and the forest, and the fairies were portrayed as gossamer-winged ballerinas.

The overture by Felix Mendelssohn was always used throughout this period. Augustin Daly 's production opened in in London and ran for 21 performances.

Max Reinhardt staged A Midsummer Night's Dream thirteen times between and , [60] introducing a revolving set. On the strength of this production, Warner Brothers signed Reinhardt to direct a filmed version , Hollywood's first Shakespeare movie since Douglas Fairbanks Sr.

Brown and Dick Powell. Korngold went on to make a legendary career in Hollywood, remaining in the United States after Nazi Germany annexed Austria.

Director Harley Granville-Barker introduced in a less spectacular way of staging the Dream : he reduced the size of the cast and used Elizabethan folk music instead of Mendelssohn.

He replaced large, complex sets with a simple system of patterned curtains. He portrayed the fairies as golden robotic insectoid creatures based on Cambodian idols.

His simpler, sparer staging significantly influenced subsequent productions. In , Peter Brook staged the play for the Royal Shakespeare Company in a blank white box, in which masculine fairies engaged in circus tricks such as trapeze artistry.

There have been several variations since then, including some set in the s. The Maryland Shakespeare Players at University of Maryland staged a queer production in where the lovers were same-sex couples and the mechanicals were drag queens.

The University of Michigan 's Nichols Arboretum 's programme Shakespeare in the Arb has presented a play every summer since The performance takes place in several places, with actors and audience moving together to each setting.

Artistic director Emma Rice 's first production at Shakespeare's Globe in was a version of the play. While not "a production to please the purists", it received praise.

A contemporary reworking, it included gender switched characters and Bollywood influences. Ken Ludwig 's comic play, Shakespeare in Hollywood , is set during the production of the film.

Oberon and Puck appear on the scene and find themselves cast as—themselves. In this story, Shakespeare and his company perform the play for the real Oberon and Titania and an audience of fairies.

The play is heavily quoted in the comic, and Shakespeare's son Hamnet appears in the play as the Indian boy.

Terry Pratchett 's book Lords and Ladies is a parody of the play. Bernard Cornwell 's novel Fools and Mortals is about the creation and first performance of the play, as seen by the young actor, Richard Shakespeare, brother of the playwright.

The Fairy-Queen is an opera from by Henry Purcell , based on the play. In , Felix Mendelssohn composed a concert overture , inspired by the play, that was first performed in In , partly because of the fame of the overture, and partly because his employer King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia liked the incidental music that Mendelssohn had written for other plays that had been staged at the palace in German translation, Mendelssohn was commissioned to write incidental music for a production of A Midsummer Night's Dream that was to be staged in in Potsdam.

He incorporated the existing Overture into the incidental music, which was used in most stage versions through the 19th century. The best known of the pieces from the incidental music is the famous Wedding March , frequently used as a recessional in weddings.

The revival premiered 14 July English choreographer Frederick Ashton also created a minute ballet version of the play, retitled to The Dream.

George Balanchine was another to create a Midsummer Night's Dream ballet based on the play, using Mendelssohn's music. Between and Carl Orff also wrote incidental music for a German version of the play, Ein Sommernachtstraum performed in Since Mendelssohn's parents were Jews who converted to Lutheranism, his music had been banned by the Nazi regime, and the Nazi cultural officials put out a call for new music for the play: Orff was one of the musicians who responded.

He later reworked the music for a final version, completed in The play was adapted into an opera , with music by Benjamin Britten and libretto by Britten and Peter Pears.

The opera was first performed on 11 June at Aldeburgh. The theatre company, Moonwork put on a production of Midsummer in The music for the rest of the show was written by Andrew Sherman.

In a three-act opera by Delannoy entitled Puck was premiered in Strasbourg. Progressive Rock guitarist Steve Hackett , best known for his work with Genesis , made a classical adaptation of the play in Hans Werner Henze 's Eighth Symphony is inspired by sequences from the play.

The Alexander W. A Midsummer Night's Dream has been adapted as a film many times. The following are the best known. In , British astronomer William Herschel discovered two new moons of Uranus.

In his son John Herschel named them after characters in the play: Oberon , and Titania. Another Uranian moon, discovered in by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, has been named Puck.

Titania and Bottom by Johann Heinrich Füssli — Titania and Bottom by John Anster Fitzgerald. Henry Meynell Rheam : Titania welcoming her fairy brethren.

La Folie de Titania , by Paul Gervais , All references to A Midsummer Night's Dream , unless otherwise specified, are taken from the Arden Shakespeare 2nd series edition.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about Shakespeare's play. For other uses, see A Midsummer Night's Dream disambiguation.

Puck by Joshua Reynolds , Retrieved 12 April The Observer. Retrieved 14 April Evening Standard. Radio Times.

Singh, Jyotsna G. Shakespeare and Postcolonial Theory. Bloomsbury Publishing. This Shakespeare worth giving hoot". Retrieved 14 October Shakespeare Reloaded.

Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 18 January The Shakespearean World. The Christian Science Monitor.

Shakespeare and Music: Afterlives and Borrowings. Shakespearean Music in the Plays and Early Operas. Ardent Media. Brooks, Harold F. A Midsummer Night's Dream.

The Arden Shakespeare , 2nd series. Ball, Robert Hamilton [first published ]. Routledge Library Editions: Film and Literature.

London: Routledge. Barnes, Clive 18 April The New York Times. Retrieved 31 March Retrieved 1 April Bevington, David

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Boas were the last major additions to A Midsummer Night's Dream criticism. To Boas the play is, despite its fantastical and exotic trappings, "essentially English and Elizabethan".

Summing up their contributions, Kehler writes: "This is recognizably modern criticism. The 20th century brought new insights into the play.

In , Elizabeth Sewell argued that Shakespeare aligns himself not with the aristocrats of the play, but with Bottom and the artisans.

It is their task to produce a wedding entertainment, precisely the purpose of the writer on working in this play. He counted among them fantasy, blind love, and divine love.

He traced these themes to the works of Macrobius , Apuleius , and Giordano Bruno. Bottom also briefly alludes to a passage from the First Epistle to the Corinthians by Paul the Apostle , dealing with divine love.

In , R. Dent argued against theories that the exemplary model of love in the play is the rational love of Theseus and Hippolyta.

He argued that in this work, love is inexplicable. It is the offspring of imagination, not reason. However the exemplary love of the play is one of an imagination controlled and restrained, and avoids the excesses of "dotage".

Dent also denied the rationality and wisdom typically attributed to Theseus. He reminded his readers that this is the character of Theseus from Greek mythology , a creation himself of "antique fable".

He can't tell the difference between an actual play and its interlude. The interlude of the play's acting troop is less about the art and more of an expression of the mechanicals' distrust of their own audience.

They fear the audience reactions will be either excessive or inadequate, and say so on stage. Theseus fails to get the message.

Also in , Jan Kott offered his own views on the play. He viewed as main themes of the play violence and "unrepressed animalistic sexuality".

The changeling that Oberon desires is his new "sexual toy". As for the Athenian lovers following their night in the forest, they are ashamed to talk about it because that night liberated them from themselves and social norms, and allowed them to reveal their real selves.

In , John A. Allen theorised that Bottom is a symbol of the animalistic aspect of humanity. He also thought Bottom was redeemed through the maternal tenderness of Titania, which allowed him to understand the love and self-sacrifice of Pyramus and Thisbe.

He emphasised the "terrifying power" [42] of the fairies and argued that they control the play's events.

They are the most powerful figures featured, not Theseus as often thought. He also emphasised the ethically ambivalent characters of the play.

Finally, Fender noted a layer of complexity in the play. Theseus, Hippolyta, and Bottom have contradictory reactions to the events of the night, and each has partly valid reasons for their reactions, implying that the puzzles offered to the play's audience can have no singular answer or meaning.

In , Michael Taylor argued that previous critics offered a too cheerful view of what the play depicts. He emphasised the less pleasant aspects of the otherwise appealing fairies and the nastiness of the mortal Demetrius prior to his enchantment.

He argued that the overall themes are the often painful aspects of love and the pettiness of people, which here include the fairies. Zimbardo viewed the play as full of symbols.

The Moon and its phases alluded to in the play, in his view, stand for permanence in mutability. The play uses the principle of discordia concors in several of its key scenes.

Theseus and Hippolyta represent marriage and, symbolically, the reconciliation of the natural seasons or the phases of time.

Hippolyta's story arc is that she must submit to Theseus and become a matron. Titania has to give up her motherly obsession with the changeling boy and passes through a symbolic death, and Oberon has to once again woo and win his wife.

Kehler notes that Zimbardo took for granted the female subordination within the obligatory marriage, social views that were already challenged in the s.

In , James L. Calderwood offered a new view on the role of Oberon. He viewed the king as specialising in the arts of illusion. Oberon, in his view, is the interior dramatist of the play, orchestrating events.

He is responsible for the play's happy ending, when he influences Theseus to overrule Egeus and allow the lovers to marry.

Oberon and Theseus bring harmony out of discord. He also suggested that the lovers' identities, which are blurred and lost in the forest, recall the unstable identities of the actors who constantly change roles.

In fact the failure of the artisans' play is based on their chief flaw as actors: they can not lose their own identities to even temporarily replace them with those of their fictional roles.

Also in , Andrew D. Weiner argued that the play's actual theme is unity. The poet's imagination creates unity by giving form to diverse elements, and the writer is addressing the spectator's own imagination which also creates and perceives unity.

Weiner connected this unity to the concept of uniformity, and in turn viewed this as Shakespeare's allusion to the "eternal truths" [46] of Platonism and Christianity.

Also writing in , Hugh M. Richmond offered an entirely new view of the play's love story lines. He argued that what passes for love in this play is actually a self-destructive expression of passion.

He argued that the play's significant characters are all affected by passion and by a sadomasochistic type of sexuality. This passion prevents the lovers from genuinely communicating with each other.

At the same time it protects them from the disenchantment with the love interest that communication inevitably brings.

The exception to the rule is Bottom, who is chiefly devoted to himself. His own egotism protects him from feeling passion for anyone else. Richmond also noted that there are parallels between the tale of Pyramus and Thisbe , featured in this play, and that of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet.

In , Neil Taylor argued that there was a double time-scheme in the play, making it seem to last a minimum of four nights but to also be timeless.

In , Ralph Berry argued that Shakespeare was chiefly concerned with epistemology in this play. The lovers declare illusion to be reality, the actors declare reality to be illusion.

The play ultimately reconciles the seemingly opposing views and vindicates imagination. The mood is so lovely that the audience never feels fear or worry about the fate of the characters.

In , Marjorie Garber argued that metamorphosis is both the major subject of the play and the model of its structure.

She noted that in this play, the entry in the woods is a dream-like change in perception, a change which affects both the characters and the audience.

Dreams here take priority over reason, and are truer than the reality they seek to interpret and transform.

He was certain that there are grimmer elements in the play, but they are overlooked because the audience focuses on the story of the sympathetic young lovers.

He viewed the characters as separated into four groups which interact in various ways. Among the four, the fairies stand as the most sophisticated and unconstrained.

The contrasts between the interacting groups produce the play's comic perspective. In , Ronald F. Miller expresses his view that the play is a study in the epistemology of imagination.

He focused on the role of the fairies, who have a mysterious aura of evanescence and ambiguity. He in part refuted the ideas of Jan Kott concerning the sexuality of Oberon and the fairies.

He pointed that Oberon may be bisexual and his desire for the changeling boy may be sexual in nature, as Kott suggested. But there is little textual evidence to support this, as the writer left ambiguous clues concerning the idea of love among the fairies.

He concluded that therefore their love life is "unknowable and incomprehensible". It is the tension between the dark and benevolent sides of love, which are reconciled in the end.

In , Anne Paolucci argued that the play lasts five days. In , M. Lamb suggested that the play may have borrowed an aspect of the ancient myth of Theseus: the Athenian's entry into the Labyrinth of the Minotaur.

The woods of the play serve as a metaphorical labyrinth, and for Elizabethans the woods were often an allegory of sexual sin.

The lovers in the woods conquer irrational passion and find their way back. Bottom with his animal head becomes a comical version of the Minotaur.

Bottom also becomes Ariadne's thread which guides the lovers. In having the new Minotaur rescue rather than threaten the lovers, the classical myth is comically inverted.

Theseus himself is the bridegroom of the play who has left the labyrinth and promiscuity behind, having conquered his passion. The artisans may stand in for the master craftsman of the myth, and builder of the Labyrinth, Daedalus.

Even Theseus' best known speech in the play, which connects the poet with the lunatic and the lover may be another metaphor of the lover. It is a challenge for the poet to confront the irrationality he shares with lovers and lunatics, accepting the risks of entering the labyrinth.

Also in , Harold F. Brooks agreed that the main theme of the play, its very heart, is desire and its culmination in marriage. All other subjects are of lesser importance, including that of imagination and that of appearance and reality.

She argued that the play is about traditional rites of passage , which trigger development within the individual and society.

Theseus has detached himself from imagination and rules Athens harshly. The lovers flee from the structure of his society to the communitas of the woods.

The woods serve here as the communitas , a temporary aggregate for persons whose asocial desires require accommodation to preserve the health of society.

This is the rite of passage where the asocial can be contained. Falk identified this communitas with the woods, with the unconscious, with the dream space.

She argued that the lovers experience release into self-knowledge and then return to the renewed Athens. This is " societas ", the resolution of the dialectic between the dualism of communitas and structure.

Also in , Christian critic R. Chris Hassel, Jr. The experience of the lovers and that of Bottom as expressed in his awakening speech teach them "a new humility, a healthy sense of folly".

They just learned a lesson of faith. Hassel also thought that Theseus' speech on the lunatic, the lover, and the poet is an applause to imagination.

But it is also a laughing rejection of futile attempts to perceive, categorise, or express it. Some of the interpretations of the play have been based on psychology and its diverse theories.

In , Alex Aronson argued that Theseus represents the conscious mind and Puck represents the unconscious mind. Puck, in this view, is a guise of the unconscious as a trickster , while remaining subservient to Oberon.

Aronson thought that the play explores unauthorised desire and linked it to the concept of fertility. He viewed the donkey and the trees as fertility symbols.

The lovers' sexual desires are symbolised in their forest encounters. First, they have to pass through stages of madness multiple disguises , and discover their "authentic sexual selves".

Holland applied psychoanalytic literary criticism to the play. He interpreted the dream of Hermia as if it was a real dream. In his view, the dream uncovers the phases of Hermia's sexual development.

Her search for options is her defence mechanism. She both desires Lysander and wants to retain her virginity. In his view, Shakespeare suggests that love requires the risk of death.

Love achieves force and direction from the interweaving of the life impulse with the deathward-release of sexual tension. He also viewed the play as suggesting that the healing force of love is connected to the acceptance of death, and vice versa.

In , Jan Lawson Hinely argued that this play has a therapeutic value. Shakespeare in many ways explores the sexual fears of the characters, releases them, and transforms them.

And the happy ending is the reestablishment of social harmony. Patriarchy itself is also challenged and transformed, as the men offer their women a loving equality, one founded on respect and trust.

She even viewed Titania's loving acceptance of the donkey-headed Bottom as a metaphor for basic trust.

This trust is what enables the warring and uncertain lovers to achieve their sexual maturity. In , Barbara Freedman argued that the play justifies the ideological formation of absolute monarchy , and makes visible for examination the maintenance process of hegemonic order.

During the years of the Puritan Interregnum when the theatres were closed — , the comic subplot of Bottom and his compatriots was performed as a droll.

Drolls were comical playlets, often adapted from the subplots of Shakespearean and other plays, that could be attached to the acts of acrobats and jugglers and other allowed performances, thus circumventing the ban against drama.

When the theatres re-opened in , A Midsummer Night's Dream was acted in adapted form, like many other Shakespearean plays.

Samuel Pepys saw it on 29 September and thought it " the most insipid, ridiculous play that ever I saw John Frederick Lampe elaborated upon Leveridge's version in In , David Garrick did the opposite of what had been done a century earlier: he extracted Bottom and his companions and acted the rest, in an adaptation called The Fairies.

Frederic Reynolds produced an operatic version in In , Madame Vestris at Covent Garden returned the play to the stage with a relatively full text, adding musical sequences and balletic dances.

Vestris took the role of Oberon, and for the next seventy years, Oberon and Puck would always be played by women.

After the success of Madame Vestris' production, 19th-century theatre continued to stage the Dream as a spectacle, often with a cast numbering nearly one hundred.

Detailed sets were created for the palace and the forest, and the fairies were portrayed as gossamer-winged ballerinas.

The overture by Felix Mendelssohn was always used throughout this period. Augustin Daly 's production opened in in London and ran for 21 performances.

Max Reinhardt staged A Midsummer Night's Dream thirteen times between and , [60] introducing a revolving set. On the strength of this production, Warner Brothers signed Reinhardt to direct a filmed version , Hollywood's first Shakespeare movie since Douglas Fairbanks Sr.

Brown and Dick Powell. Korngold went on to make a legendary career in Hollywood, remaining in the United States after Nazi Germany annexed Austria.

Director Harley Granville-Barker introduced in a less spectacular way of staging the Dream : he reduced the size of the cast and used Elizabethan folk music instead of Mendelssohn.

He replaced large, complex sets with a simple system of patterned curtains. He portrayed the fairies as golden robotic insectoid creatures based on Cambodian idols.

His simpler, sparer staging significantly influenced subsequent productions. In , Peter Brook staged the play for the Royal Shakespeare Company in a blank white box, in which masculine fairies engaged in circus tricks such as trapeze artistry.

There have been several variations since then, including some set in the s. The Maryland Shakespeare Players at University of Maryland staged a queer production in where the lovers were same-sex couples and the mechanicals were drag queens.

The University of Michigan 's Nichols Arboretum 's programme Shakespeare in the Arb has presented a play every summer since The performance takes place in several places, with actors and audience moving together to each setting.

Artistic director Emma Rice 's first production at Shakespeare's Globe in was a version of the play. While not "a production to please the purists", it received praise.

A contemporary reworking, it included gender switched characters and Bollywood influences. Ken Ludwig 's comic play, Shakespeare in Hollywood , is set during the production of the film.

Oberon and Puck appear on the scene and find themselves cast as—themselves. In this story, Shakespeare and his company perform the play for the real Oberon and Titania and an audience of fairies.

The play is heavily quoted in the comic, and Shakespeare's son Hamnet appears in the play as the Indian boy. Terry Pratchett 's book Lords and Ladies is a parody of the play.

Bernard Cornwell 's novel Fools and Mortals is about the creation and first performance of the play, as seen by the young actor, Richard Shakespeare, brother of the playwright.

The Fairy-Queen is an opera from by Henry Purcell , based on the play. In , Felix Mendelssohn composed a concert overture , inspired by the play, that was first performed in In , partly because of the fame of the overture, and partly because his employer King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia liked the incidental music that Mendelssohn had written for other plays that had been staged at the palace in German translation, Mendelssohn was commissioned to write incidental music for a production of A Midsummer Night's Dream that was to be staged in in Potsdam.

He incorporated the existing Overture into the incidental music, which was used in most stage versions through the 19th century.

The best known of the pieces from the incidental music is the famous Wedding March , frequently used as a recessional in weddings.

The revival premiered 14 July English choreographer Frederick Ashton also created a minute ballet version of the play, retitled to The Dream.

George Balanchine was another to create a Midsummer Night's Dream ballet based on the play, using Mendelssohn's music.

Between and Carl Orff also wrote incidental music for a German version of the play, Ein Sommernachtstraum performed in Since Mendelssohn's parents were Jews who converted to Lutheranism, his music had been banned by the Nazi regime, and the Nazi cultural officials put out a call for new music for the play: Orff was one of the musicians who responded.

He later reworked the music for a final version, completed in The play was adapted into an opera , with music by Benjamin Britten and libretto by Britten and Peter Pears.

The opera was first performed on 11 June at Aldeburgh. The theatre company, Moonwork put on a production of Midsummer in The music for the rest of the show was written by Andrew Sherman.

In a three-act opera by Delannoy entitled Puck was premiered in Strasbourg. Progressive Rock guitarist Steve Hackett , best known for his work with Genesis , made a classical adaptation of the play in Hans Werner Henze 's Eighth Symphony is inspired by sequences from the play.

The Alexander W. A Midsummer Night's Dream has been adapted as a film many times. The following are the best known.

In , British astronomer William Herschel discovered two new moons of Uranus. In his son John Herschel named them after characters in the play: Oberon , and Titania.

Another Uranian moon, discovered in by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, has been named Puck. Titania and Bottom by Johann Heinrich Füssli — Titania and Bottom by John Anster Fitzgerald.

Henry Meynell Rheam : Titania welcoming her fairy brethren. La Folie de Titania , by Paul Gervais , All references to A Midsummer Night's Dream , unless otherwise specified, are taken from the Arden Shakespeare 2nd series edition.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about Shakespeare's play. For other uses, see A Midsummer Night's Dream disambiguation.

Puck by Joshua Reynolds , Retrieved 12 April The Observer. Retrieved 14 April Evening Standard.

Radio Times. Singh, Jyotsna G. Shakespeare and Postcolonial Theory. Bloomsbury Publishing. This Shakespeare worth giving hoot".

Retrieved 14 October Shakespeare Reloaded. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 18 January The Shakespearean World. The Christian Science Monitor.

Shakespeare and Music: Afterlives and Borrowings. Shakespearean Music in the Plays and Early Operas. Ardent Media. Brooks, Harold F.

A Midsummer Night's Dream. The Arden Shakespeare , 2nd series. Ball, Robert Hamilton [first published ]. Routledge Library Editions: Film and Literature.

London: Routledge. Barnes, Clive 18 April The New York Times. Retrieved 31 March Retrieved 1 April Bevington, David In Dutton, Richard ed.

New York: St. Martin's Press. In Jansohn, Christa ed. International studies in Shakespeare and his contemporaries.

Newark, Delaware: University of Delaware Press. The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 29 September Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 29 January The Open University.

Archived from the original on 7 October Retrieved 2 June In Kehler, Dorothea ed. Garland reference library of the humanities. Psychology Press.

McQueen, M. Sinclair, R. Cash and T. Cade Bambara". Black Camera. Indiana University Press. A Shakespeare Companion — Baltimore: Penguin.

Shakespeare: An Oxford Guide. New York: Oxford University Press. South Central Review. Internet Off-Broadway Database. Kehler, Dorothea Shakespeare, Poet and Citizen.

London: Verso. The Musical Quarterly. Oxford University Press. University of Minnesota Press. Intermedial Shakespeares on European Stages.

Palgrave Studies in Performance and Technology. Archived from the original on 22 April Retrieved 22 November The Johns Hopkins University Press.

A Shakespeare Reader: Sources and Criticism. London: Macmillan Press. Archived from the original on 5 August Archived from the original on 29 November Retrieved 11 May The Royal Shakespeare Company.

Archived from the original on 13 December University of Michigan. Archived from the original on 23 June Retrieved 15 July Slights, William W.

Rice University. Routledge library editions: Shakespeare. New York: Routledge. New York: Springer Nature. Waleson, Heidi 25 January The Wall Street Journal.

In Eckert, Charles W. Focus on Shakespearean Films. Three young athletes, Miura, Nakata and Kohai, cause a car accident by rear-ending a car carrying a Yakuza a Japanese mobster named Tanioka.

Nakata, driving the car, has his driver's license taken away, and the three young men are taken to Tanioka's office.

To get back it from him, Miura is coerced into sadistic homosexual sex by Tanioka to atone. They later go on the offensive, when Nakata steals a gun from Tanioka.

Miura rapes Tanioka aggressively, and, after finishing, Nakata kills Tanioka by shooting him in the anus. Soon after this video was released, some viewers claimed Miura in this video resembled a famous college baseball player at that time.

However, this rumor wasn't spread widely until a gossip paper also reported it in This topic finally made the headlines in the middle of Many Japanese gossip magazines and papers began reporting that a man who closely resembled a candidate of that year's professional baseball draft appeared in a gay porn video with younger players on the same team.

Though the reports kept his name a secret, they did so in vain, as it was commonly known that the player was Tadano. The manager of the baseball team at the university where he had gone made a statement saying that there were players on his team who had been in the video.

As a result of this, he was unable to hear any offers from other Japanese professional baseball teams, out of fear of scandal.

The baseball player, Kazuhito Tadano [2] , went to the US and managed to continue his career by passing a tryout for Cleveland Indians. In January , he left the comment about the incident to American media for the first time, saying "It was a one-time incident… I'm not gay.

This video itself went out of print. Several episodes were compiled to DVD in later years, minus the first episode. Their research brought the video to many Japanese internet user's attention and surfaced another video starring Tadano and his teammates.

This caused people to doubt his statement saying he was straight. At the same time, the videos' poor acting, cheesy one-liners and nonsensical storylines made it the target of jokes on 2Channel.

Since Nico Nico Douga was launched in , many of the videos and jokes have been uploaded to there, and some of them have been reused in MAD videos.

Inmu videos began to change since the inmufags discovered the fanmade of Marisa and Alice's cookie kiss , this change consisted in making more videos with the characters, backgrounds, text boxes and the main bgm of that touhou fandmade, and put the characters of the inmu family in those videos.

With different silly stories to satirize more the actors. Since the scandal surrounding the Tadano incident that never reported actor's real name, commenters usually refer to actors in this video series not by their real name, but by their acronyms.

The main character of this online phenomena. Many his quotes became catchphrases. In particular, his breathing voices in this video "Ah!

The man playing Nakata and TDN's junior in the college baseball team. In addition to his ridiculous acting in the video, he is popular among supporters because of his career in real life after graduating the college.

They found that he got a job as a salesman in a major company and had an interview in the company's official website. In addition, he has various kind of his dirty Shift-JIS arts combining him and penises.

TNOK is a professional gay porn actor. He is popular for his handsome figure and many misheard phrases coming from his bad pronunciations.

Relax your ass, dude. He comes from the 4th episode in the video which was shared on the web for the first time in He appears on several gay porn videos and his leering and intense gaze to a junior and high piercing breathing voices are popular resource for MAD videos.

Comes from the 2nd episode of this infamous video. He himself isn't a subject of mockery. GO is the nickname given to the character, who appeared in Babylon 28 Scout, also he appeared in the 3rd episode of this infamous video.

On March 2nd, , Twitter user inairesaikou [12] noticed that one of the illustrated characters in the Nintendo Switch set-up page bore a striking similarity to GO.

A Midsummer Nights Lewd Dream Video

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A Midsummer Nights Lewd Dream -

Februar Dennis Lakowski 0. Dieses Objekt ist inkompatibel mit Left 4 Dead 2. Dieses Objekt wird nur für Sie, Admins und für jeden, der als Ersteller eingetragen ist, sichtbar sein.